2. How did the farmers obtain water from the land in the pre-independence era- i.e. 66 years ago?

2In the pre-independence era every village had such fields as were uneven. When it rained, the farmer having a field of 20 “VINGHAS” could sow seeds only in 17 “VINGHAS” of his farm as the remaining 3 “VINGHAS” of land would be covered with water. The same condition could be found in thousands of fields in the village. The major portion of the field was covered under the water and that collected water would seep into the land. 66 years ago there were no diesel machines or submersible motors available to draw water from beneath the land. The village had a very meagre number of wells. In my village meetings I always asked the elders how many wells there were in their village 66 years ago. Their answer was always disappointing – some villages had only 6 wells, some had 10 and some had 15. People used to draw water from the well using “KOS”. This water was sufficient for irrigating only 5 “VINGHAS” of land in winter and 2.5 “VINGHAS” in summer as water would seep deeper into the land in the summer season. Each field had 3 “VINGHAS” of land in water. In every village having 10 wells, averagely 50 ‘ VINGHAS of land could be irrigated; in the rest of the land farmers had to depend on the rain.  As there were 1000 fields, 3000 “VINGHAS” of land was covered in water which would naturally seep into the land. On the other side, people used to draw water from 10 wells using “KOS”. This is how the farmers had to struggle hard to get water.