Gujarat State is situated on the west coast of India. The total geographical area is 1,96,000 s.q kms. with a coastal lengrh of 1600 kms, which is one-third of the coastal length of India.
The cultivable area of the State measures at 124 lacs ha. which forms two-third of the total area of the State.
Even after considering present irrigation potential and future potential created Sardar Sarovar Narmada Project over 65 lacs ha. of land can not be supplied irrigation water.
Gujarat has quite fertile land with average rainfall varying throughout state from 14 inches per annum to 45 inches per annum. There are 17 rivers basins in Gujarat main land, 71 river basins in Saurashtra region and 97 river basins in Kachchh region. Though more than 184 Major and Medium irrigation schems exist in the state, several parts of North Gujarat, Saurashtra and Kachchh regions frequently suffers from severe water scarcity conditions forcing the authorities to supply water by tankers. Thus surface water being insufficient, ground water is being exploited to a great extent to protect the agriculture thanks to which complex problems have appeared. 40 talukas have been demarcated as overexploited, 10 as dark and 7 as saline.
People face drinking water crisis and toa sustain life has became difficult task at many places. Wate levels in tubewells in certain areas of North Gujarat have come down to 1000 feet ground level.