There are many different types of land in our country:
- Rocky land in the mountain area
- Flat and even land in the plains
- Desert land
In the flat even plains we can find different kinds of soil. In some areas the soil is sticky; in some other areas it is sandy and in some areas the soil is TASOD. In these areas water storage methods have to vary according to the different types of soil. E.g. in a mountain area water can be stopped from flowing away by constructing PADA. If a large quantity of water gets stored over there, an RCC structure should be constructed between two hills. _____________. In smooth and even plains ponds can be built so that its water would seep into the land. A huge amount of water can be stopped from flowing away by building VOKADAS and NEHRAS as well as by building a series of check-dams in the river. Considering the inflow of water, ponds should be built at proper places in the rivers. Mines should also be utilized for storing rain water. If this method of water storage is adopted in the TASOD area the soil in the whole village will become moist and fertile. If water seeps into the soil and collects there the water level in the wells will come up and wells will be filled with water. There are very few rivers and NEHRAS in the desert area near North Gujarat and Rajasthan. As the soil is sandy, the rain water collects on the land but then instead of flowing away through the sandy soil, it seeps into the land.
If we talk about the land of Ider in North Gujarat, not a single stone is found up to the depth of 170 feet. Similarly on the border of Kutch in Patan area no stone is found up to the depth of 1800 feet. As it is a very deep layer of sandy soil, water doesn’t flow ahead but seeps into the land. When there is a heavy rainfall, the rivers start flowing from bank to bank.
There was a severe shortage of water in North Gujarat so water was drawn from the land from the depth of 1800 feet. A “secret dam” should be built in the rivers of North Gujarat. In the expanse of a river at the depth of 20 feet, a SARELI is built. A piece of plastic paper is placed in it and then it is filled up with sticky soil. These “secret dams” help to stop the internal flow of water. If it is possible, ponds can be built in proportion to the inflow of water. In a desert area of sandy soil water can be stored in this way. The problem of water shortage can also be solved.
There is an expanse of salty soil in Amreli district. The soil in such an area is very sticky. The soil doesn’t contain TAS or sand. In such an area water stored on the land doesn’t seep into the land. How to make water seep into the land? In such areas at the centre of a pond a 20 x 20 feet well having the depth of 25 feet should be dug. Then it should be filled up with stones. Water collected on the land will seep into the land through this well. If in all the ponds of the village this similar arrangement is made, water level can come up.
In certain areas the water we draw from under the land is impure. If such impure water is used for irrigating the field, its soil will be spoilt. In such areas water should not be made to seep into the land. Instead more and more ponds should be built and water from these ponds should be used for irrigating a field by means of TAPAK SINCHAI. This is how the agricultural produce can be increased.
Considering the geographical condition of all the areas and the type of soil, various methods of water storage must be adopted. All these guidelines are for the rural areas.
But our country has a number of towns and cities. Every big city has a drainage system and hard surface roads, so water no longer seeps into the land. In a city a shortage of pure drinking water is a common thing. In order to store water in an urban area it is advisable to dig a pit of 10 x 10 feet with a depth of 10 feet.